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Analyzing Customers & Sales for Success | Comprehensive M&A Due Diligence

By: Jack Nicholaisen author image
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Understanding the intricacies of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) is essential for business success.

It’s important because a thorough review of these elements can reveal potential risks and opportunities.

article summaryKey Takeaways

  • Identify top customers to assess revenue stability and risks.
  • Review customer satisfaction to ensure strong post-acquisition relationships.
  • Examine sales terms to uncover potential issues.
  • Analyze the sales pipeline for future revenue predictability.
  • Assess sales compensation to maintain team motivation and retention.

You’ll learn about identifying top customers, assessing customer satisfaction, reviewing sales terms, and more.

By following practical steps and asking the right questions, you can ensure a smoother acquisition process.

Read on to uncover key strategies and insights that will help you make informed decisions and achieve M&A success.

Understanding the target company’s customer base and sales dynamics is crucial during M&A due diligence.

This involves a comprehensive review of the company’s key customers, revenue concentration, customer satisfaction levels, and the stability of the sales pipeline.

The goal is to identify any potential risks associated with customer dependency and retention, as well as to evaluate the overall health and predictability of the company’s revenue streams.


➤ MORE: Check out the FULL Due Diligence Checklist here

Identify Top Customers and Revenue Concentration

Identifying the top 20 customers and analyzing the revenue generated from each provides insights into the company’s customer dependency and revenue stability.

This step involves listing these key customers and assessing the proportion of total revenue they represent.

A high concentration of revenue from a few customers can indicate potential risks if those customers decide to leave or reduce their spending.

Practical Benefits:

  • Helps assess the stability and predictability of revenue streams.

  • Identifies potential risks associated with customer dependency.


Understanding revenue concentration is vital to evaluating the financial stability of the target company.

It helps in determining the impact of losing a major customer and in planning strategies to mitigate such risks.

Practical Steps:

  1. List Key Customers: Compile a detailed list of the top 20 customers and the revenue generated from each.

  2. Assess Revenue Concentration: Calculate the percentage of total revenue each key customer represents.

  3. Evaluate Dependency Risks: Analyze the potential impact on the company’s financial health if a key customer reduces their business or leaves.

  4. Review Customer Contracts: Examine long-term contracts with key customers to understand the terms and duration of these agreements.

Self-Assessment Questions:

  • Who are the top 20 customers, and what percentage of total revenue do they represent?

  • Are there any significant dependencies on a few customers?

  • How diversified is the company’s customer base?

  • Are there any long-term contracts with these key customers?

  • How have these customer relationships evolved over time?


Assess Customer Satisfaction and Retention Risks

Evaluating customer satisfaction and retention risks involves reviewing customer feedback and conducting satisfaction surveys.

This process helps in understanding the current relationship between the company and its customers and identifying any potential issues that could affect customer loyalty post-acquisition.

Practical Benefits:

  • Ensures the maintenance of strong customer relationships post-acquisition.

  • Identifies potential risks and areas for improvement in customer satisfaction.


Customer satisfaction is a key indicator of the company’s ability to retain its customers.

High satisfaction levels generally correlate with better customer retention and stability in revenue.

Practical Steps:

  1. Review Customer Feedback: Analyze feedback from customer satisfaction surveys and other feedback channels.

  2. Conduct Customer Calls: If appropriate, conduct calls with key customers to gauge their satisfaction and loyalty.

  3. Identify Retention Risks: Assess any risks related to customer retention, especially potential changes in relationships after the acquisition.

  4. Develop Mitigation Strategies: Create strategies to address identified retention risks and improve customer satisfaction.

Self-Assessment Questions:

  • How satisfied are customers with their relationship with the company?

  • Are there any major complaints or issues raised by key customers?

  • What steps does the company take to ensure customer retention?

  • How might the acquisition impact customer relationships?

  • Are there any loyalty programs or incentives in place for key customers?


Review Sales Terms and Policies

Examining the company’s sales terms, policies, and levels of returns, exchanges, or refunds helps in identifying potential issues related to sales practices and customer satisfaction.

This review ensures that the company’s sales policies align with industry standards and customer expectations.

Practical Benefits:

  • Identifies potential issues in sales practices.

  • Ensures compliance with industry standards and customer expectations.


Understanding sales terms and policies is crucial for identifying any red flags that could impact customer satisfaction and retention.

It also helps in assessing the company’s flexibility in accommodating customer needs.

Practical Steps:

  1. Examine Sales Terms: Review the standard sales terms and policies of the company.

  2. Analyze Returns and Refunds: Assess any unusual levels of returns, exchanges, or refunds.

  3. Evaluate Policy Flexibility: Determine how flexible the sales terms and policies are in accommodating customer needs.

  4. Identify Sales Practice Risks: Look for any potential risks associated with the company’s sales practices.

Self-Assessment Questions:

  • What are the standard sales terms and policies of the company?

  • Are there any unusual levels of returns or refunds?

  • How flexible are the sales terms and policies in accommodating customer needs?

  • Are there any risks associated with the company’s sales practices?


Evaluate Sales Pipeline and Seasonality

Analyzing the company’s sales pipeline and understanding any seasonal variations in revenue helps in assessing the predictability and stability of future revenue.

This step involves reviewing the current sales pipeline and identifying any patterns or trends related to seasonality.

Practical Benefits:

  • Assesses the predictability and stability of future revenue.

  • Helps in planning for seasonal variations in revenue.


A well-understood sales pipeline provides insights into the company’s future revenue potential and helps in planning for any seasonal fluctuations.

This is crucial for maintaining stable cash flow and working capital requirements.

Practical Steps:

  1. Analyze Current Sales Pipeline: Review the current sales pipeline to understand the potential future revenue.

  2. Identify Seasonal Variations: Look for any significant seasonal variations in revenue and working capital requirements.

  3. Assess Pipeline Predictability: Evaluate the predictability and stability of the sales pipeline based on historical data.

  4. Develop Management Strategies: Create strategies to manage seasonal variations and ensure stable revenue flow.

Self-Assessment Questions:

  • What does the current sales pipeline look like?

  • Are there any significant seasonal variations in revenue?

  • How predictable and stable is the company’s sales pipeline?

  • What strategies does the company use to manage seasonal variations in revenue?


Review Sales Compensation and Motivation

Assessing how salespeople are compensated and motivated is crucial for understanding the impact of the acquisition on the sales team.

This involves reviewing the current compensation structures and evaluating the potential changes post-acquisition.

Practical Benefits:

  • Ensures the sales team remains motivated and effective post-acquisition.

  • Identifies potential retention risks related to changes in compensation.


A motivated sales team is essential for maintaining sales performance post-acquisition.

Understanding the current compensation structure helps in planning for any necessary adjustments to retain key sales personnel.

Practical Steps:

  1. Review Compensation Structure: Analyze the current compensation and motivation structures for the sales team.

  2. Assess Potential Changes: Evaluate the impact of the acquisition on financial incentives and compensation structures.

  3. Identify Retention Risks: Look for any retention risks associated with changes in compensation.

  4. Develop Retention Strategies: Create strategies to ensure the sales team remains motivated and effective post-acquisition.

Self-Assessment Questions:

  • How are salespeople compensated and motivated?

  • Are there any significant changes in compensation expected post-acquisition?

  • How effective is the current sales compensation structure in driving performance?

  • Are there any retention risks associated with changes in compensation?


FAQs - Frequently Asked Questions About Due Diligence into a Company’s Customers and Sales

Business FAQs

Why is customer satisfaction important in M&A due diligence?

Customer satisfaction ensures strong post-acquisition relationships.

It helps maintain stable revenue streams.

Learn More...

Customer satisfaction is crucial because it directly impacts customer retention and loyalty.

High satisfaction levels usually mean that customers are happy with the company's products or services, which translates to stable and predictable revenue streams.

Post-acquisition, maintaining these relationships is vital to avoid revenue loss and ensure a smooth transition.

Evaluating customer satisfaction involves reviewing feedback and satisfaction surveys, conducting customer calls, and addressing any major complaints.

This helps in identifying potential risks and areas for improvement, ensuring that the company's reputation and customer base remain strong after the acquisition.

How do I identify revenue concentration risks in M&A?

List top customers and analyze their revenue contributions.

Evaluate dependency on a few major customers.

Learn More...

Identifying revenue concentration risks involves listing the top 20 customers and the percentage of total revenue they represent.

This helps in assessing the stability and predictability of the company's revenue.

If a significant portion of revenue comes from a few customers, there's a higher risk if any of those customers decide to leave or reduce their spending.

To mitigate these risks, review the terms of long-term contracts with key customers and evaluate the company's efforts to diversify its customer base.

Understanding the evolution of customer relationships over time can also provide insights into the potential for maintaining or growing these accounts post-acquisition.

What are the key steps in evaluating a sales pipeline during M&A?

Review the current sales pipeline and analyze seasonal trends.

Assess the predictability and stability of future revenue.

Learn More...

Evaluating a sales pipeline involves reviewing the company's current sales pipeline data to understand the potential future revenue.

Look for patterns and trends, particularly any seasonal variations that might affect revenue and working capital requirements.

This helps in predicting the company's financial performance and planning accordingly.

Key steps include analyzing historical sales data, identifying significant seasonal variations, and assessing the company's strategies to manage these fluctuations.

Tools like Salesforce can provide detailed insights into the sales pipeline, helping to identify potential risks and opportunities for revenue growth.

How can I ensure the sales team remains motivated post-acquisition?

Assess current compensation and identify potential changes.

Develop strategies to maintain motivation and retention.

Learn More...

Ensuring the sales team remains motivated post-acquisition involves reviewing the current compensation and motivation structures.

This includes analyzing salaries, bonuses, commissions, and other incentives.

Assessing how these might change post-acquisition is crucial for identifying potential retention risks and developing strategies to address them.

Practical steps include:

  • Conducting surveys or interviews with sales team members to understand their concerns,
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of current compensation structures,
  • Creating new incentive programs that align with the post-acquisition goals.

Maintaining open communication and involving the sales team in the transition process can also help in retaining key personnel.

What should I look for in customer contracts during M&A?

Review terms, duration, and any special clauses.

Assess potential risks and long-term commitments.

Learn More...

When reviewing customer contracts, it's important to examine the terms and conditions, including the duration, renewal clauses, and any special terms that might impact the company's obligations or revenue streams.

Pay attention to any clauses related to changes in ownership or control, as these might affect the contracts' validity post-acquisition.

Look for any risks associated with customer commitments, such as high service level agreements (SLAs) or penalty clauses for non-compliance.

Understanding the long-term commitments and obligations helps in assessing the potential impact on the company's financial and operational performance post-acquisition.

Detailed contract reviews can reveal hidden liabilities or opportunities for renegotiation.

How do sales terms and policies affect customer satisfaction?

Sales terms impact how customers perceive and interact with the company.

Flexible policies can enhance customer satisfaction.

Learn More...

Sales terms and policies significantly impact customer satisfaction by determining how customers interact with the company's products or services.

Flexible and customer-friendly policies, such as easy returns or exchanges, can enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Conversely, rigid or complex policies can lead to dissatisfaction and churn.

Reviewing sales terms involves examining standard terms and conditions, return and refund policies, and any special terms for key customers.

Analyzing customer feedback on these policies can provide insights into areas for improvement.

Adjusting sales terms to better meet customer needs can lead to increased satisfaction and retention, ultimately supporting the company's revenue stability.

What are the benefits of diversifying the customer base in M&A?

Diversification reduces dependency on a few customers.

It enhances revenue stability and growth potential.

Learn More...

Diversifying the customer base reduces the company's dependency on a few major customers, thereby lowering the risk of significant revenue loss if one or more customers leave.

A diversified customer base also enhances revenue stability and growth potential by spreading risk across a broader range of clients and industries.

Practical steps to achieve diversification include:

  • Targeting new market segments,
  • Developing new products or services to attract different customer groups,
  • Enhancing marketing efforts to reach a wider audience.

Analyzing the current customer base to identify gaps and opportunities for diversification can guide these strategies.

By expanding the customer base, the company can achieve more predictable and sustainable growth.

How does seasonality affect sales pipelines in M&A?

Seasonality causes fluctuations in revenue and working capital needs.

Understanding it helps in planning for financial stability.

Learn More...

Seasonality affects sales pipelines by causing predictable fluctuations in revenue and working capital requirements.

For example, a company might experience higher sales during certain seasons or events, while other periods might see a dip.

Understanding these patterns is crucial for planning and maintaining financial stability throughout the year.

To manage seasonality, companies should analyze historical sales data to identify trends and develop strategies to mitigate the impact of low periods.

This can include diversifying product offerings, adjusting marketing strategies, and managing inventory and cash flow effectively.

By planning for seasonal variations, companies can ensure smoother financial performance and avoid cash flow issues.

Why are long-term customer contracts important in M&A?

They provide revenue stability and predictability.

They mitigate the risks of customer turnover.

Learn More...

Long-term customer contracts are important because they provide a stable and predictable revenue stream, which is crucial for financial planning and valuation during M&A.

These contracts often include commitments from customers to continue purchasing over an extended period, reducing the risk of sudden revenue drops due to customer turnover.

Reviewing these contracts involves assessing the terms, duration, and any renewal clauses to understand the long-term financial impact.

Identifying key customers with long-term commitments can also highlight the company's ability to maintain strong customer relationships.

Ensuring that these contracts remain valid and enforceable post-acquisition is essential for maintaining revenue stability.

In Summary…

We’ve just explored the critical aspects of M&A due diligence focused on customers and sales.

By identifying top customers and assessing revenue concentration, you can gauge the stability of your revenue streams and uncover potential risks.

Evaluating customer satisfaction and retention risks ensures strong post-acquisition relationships, while a thorough review of sales terms helps identify any issues in sales practices.

Analyzing the sales pipeline gives insights into the predictability and stability of future revenue, and assessing sales compensation helps maintain a motivated and effective sales team.

Applying this information in a practical sense enables entrepreneurs to make informed decisions during the M&A process.

You gain a comprehensive understanding of the target company’s customer dynamics and sales health, allowing you to mitigate risks and capitalize on opportunities.

This leads to a smoother acquisition process, better integration, and ultimately, greater success for your business venture.

Ready to take the next step?

Schedule a consultation call with Business Initiative or use our contact form to get personalized advice on your M&A due diligence process.

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Follow us on X for more valuable content.

  • Investopedia: For understanding revenue concentration and its implications.
  • Gartner: Market research reports and insights.
  • Forrester: Market research and industry analysis.
  • Nielsen: Customer insights and market data.
  • SurveyMonkey: Tools for creating and analyzing customer satisfaction surveys.
  • Shopify: Sales terms and policies guide.
  • Salesforce: Sales pipeline management tools.
  • HubSpot: Best practices for sales compensation.

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About the Author

jack nicholaisen
Jack Nicholaisen

Jack Nicholaisen is the founder of After acheiving the rank of Eagle Scout and studying Civil Engineering at Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE), he has spent the last 4 years disecting the mess of informaiton online about LLCs in order to help aspiring entrepreneurs and established business owners better understand everything there is to know about starting, running, and growing Limited Liability Companies and other business entities.